Solar Photovoltaic System
 
Photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity systems have captured a lot of interest as the systemcomponents have grown more mature, capable, and reliable.

The same sunny days that dry out plants, make animals thirsty, and heat up buildings and cars are also good days for generating electricity with photovoltaic’s. This electricity can be used to power water pumps for irrigation and drinking wells, and ventilation fans for air cooling. For this reason, the most simple PV systems use the dc electricity as soon as it is generated to run water pumps or fans.
 
These basic PV systems have several advantages for the special jobs they do. The energy is produced where and when it is needed, so complex wiring, storage, and control systems are unnecessary. Small systems, under 500 watts (W), weigh less than 68 kilograms (150 pounds), making them easy to transport and install. Most installations take only a few hours.
And, although pumps and fans require regular maintenance, the PV modules require only an occasional inspection and cleaning.
  Directory for the PV section:
 
Standalone PV systems.
Grid-connected PV system
PV with Generators
Large-scale PV Power Plants
Hybrid Power Systems
   
  Standalone PV Systems
 
Storing electrical energy makes PV systems a reliable source of electric power day and night, rain orshine. PV systems with battery storage are being used all over the world to power lights, sensors,recording equipment, switches, appliances, telephones, televisions, and even power tools.PV systems with batteries can be designed to power dc or ac equipment. People who want to run conventional ac equipment add a power conditioning device called an "inverter" between the batteriesand the load. Although a small amount of energy is lost in converting dc to ac, an inverter makes PV- generated electricity behave like utility power to operate everyday ac appliances, lights, and even computers.
   
  Grid-connected PV system
 
Where utility power is available, a grid-connected PV system can supply some of the energy needed and use the utility in place of batteries.Some homeowners, considered pioneers in the energy field, are using PV systems connected to the utility grid. They are doing so because they like that the system reduces the amount of electricity they purchase from the utility each month. They also like the fact that PV consumes no fuel and generates no pollution.
 
The owner of a grid-connected PV system cannot only buy, but can also sell, electricity each month.This is because electricity generated by the PV system can be used on site or fed through a meter into the utility grid. When a home or business requires more electricity than the PV array is generating (for example, in the evening), the need is automatically met by power from the utility grid.
   
  PV with Generators
 
When power must always be available or when larger amounts of electricity than a PV system alone can supply are occasionally needed, an electric generator can work effectively with a PV system to supply the load. During the daytime, the PV modules quietly supply daytime energy needs and charge batteries.If the batteries run low, the engine generator runs at full power—its most cost- and fuel-efficient mode of operation—until they are charged. And, in some systems, the generator makes up the difference when electrical demand exceeds the combined output of the PV modules and the batteries.
   
  Large-scale PV Power Plants
 
Large-scale photovoltaic power plants, consisting of many PV arrays installed together, can prove useful to utilities. Utilities can build PV plants much more quickly than they can build conventional power plants because the arrays themselves are easy to install and connect together electrically. Utilities can locate PV plants where they are most needed in the grid because siting PV arrays is much easier than siting a conventional power plant. And, unlike conventional power plants, PV plants can be expanded incrementally as demand increases. Finally, PV power plants consume no fuel and produce no air or water pollution while they silently generate electricity.
   
  Hybrid Power Systems
 
Hybrid systems combine a number of electricity production and storage pieces to meet the energy demand of a given facility or community. In addition to PV, engine generators, wind generators,small hydro plants, and any other source of electrical energy can be added as needed to meet energy demands and fit the local geographical and temporal characteristics. These systems are ideal for remote applications such as communications stations, military installations, and rural villages.
   
   
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